[141] In 1996, the net primary enrollment rate was 96.9%, and 71.8% of children stayed in school until the fifth grade / age 10. However, that same year, 1821, Peruvian forces participating in the Trujillo revolution occupied both Jaen and Tumbes. [citation needed], There is a small number of Eastern Orthodox Christians, Amerindian religions, Muslims (see Islam in Ecuador), Buddhists and Baháʼí. Its inhabitants celebrated what is now Ecuador's official Independence Day on May 24, 1822. The Borja government concluded an accord leading to the disbanding of the small terrorist group, "¡Alfaro Vive, Carajo!" These terminal degrees, as in the case of the PhD in other countries, were the main requirement for an individual to be accepted in academia as a professor or researcher. Most of them are Sephardic Anusim (Crypto-Jews) and many still speak Judaeo-Spanish (Ladino) language. In it, George d'Hout, a website designer from the United States is lured under false pretenses to Guayaquil. Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though 13 Native languages are also recognized, including Quechua and Shuar. It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. As a general rule, small elements of zambos and mulattoes coexisted among the overwhelming mestizo population of coastal Ecuador throughout its history as gold miners in Loja, Zaruma, and Zamora and as shipbuilders and plantation workers around the city of Guayaquil. In 1980, he founded the Partido Pueblo, Cambio y Democracia (People, Change, and Democracy Party) after withdrawing from the Concentración de Fuerzas Populares (Popular Forces Concentration) and governed until May 24, 1981, when he died along with his wife and the minister of defense, Marco Subia Martinez, when his Air Force plane crashed in heavy rain near the Peruvian border. Here are some average weather facts we collected from our historical climate data: The warmest month is January with an average maximum temperature of 22°C (71°F). Over time these groups began to interact and intermingle with each other so that groups of families in one area became one community or tribe, with a similar language and culture. According to the Ecuadorian musicologist Segundo Luis Moreno, Sanjuanito was danced by Amerindian people during San Juan Bautista's birthday. During this period, Texaco drilled 339 wells in 15 petroleum fields and abandoned 627 toxic wastewater pits, as well as other elements of the oil infrastructure. Tecnocumbia and Rockola are clear examples of the influence of foreign cultures. Colombia protested stating that its claims extended south toward the Napo and Amazon Rivers. [57][58], Ecuador has 1,600 bird species (15% of the world's known bird species) in the continental area and 38 more endemic in the Galápagos. We cover average temperatures (highs and lows) average rainfall, and average number of days with precipitation. Manta has some of South America's most breathtaking beaches. Ecuador weather and climate: Ecuador have very different climates and microclimates. Huáscar did not recognize his father's will, since it did not follow Inca traditions of naming an Inca through the priests. The Peruvian Navy blocked the port of Guayaquil, almost cutting all supplies to the Ecuadorian troops. Its route starts in the south of Cuenca and ends in the north at the Parque Industrial neighbourhood. bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean, and has 2,337 km (1,452 mi) of coastline. The sentences to journalists have been years of imprisonment and millions of dollars of compensation, even though defendants have been pardoned. The Supreme Council included two other members: General Guillermo Durán Arcentales and General Luis Leoro Franco. In this way, Ecuador gave up the claims it had to the Amazonian territories between the Caquetá River and Napo River to Colombia, thus cutting itself off from Brazil. [70] Ecuador was able to maintain relatively superior growth during the crisis. Since 1936, voting is compulsory for all literate persons aged 18–65, optional for all other citizens.[40]. A corrupt American archaeologist is behind the plot, believing d'Hout holds the keys to locating a treasure hidden by a buccaneer ancestor. There are also different kinds of traditional music like albazo, pasacalle, fox incaico, tonada, capishca, Bomba (highly established in Afro-Ecuadorian societies), and so on. Also, it has a huge culture spectrum. Most of its fauna and flora lives in 26 protected areas by the State. [46], The International Organization for Migration lauds Ecuador as the first state to have established the promotion of the concept of universal citizenship in its constitution, aiming to promote the universal recognition and protection of the human rights of migrants. Climate and Average Weather in Ecuador. The Andes is the watershed divisor between the Amazon watershed, which runs to the east, and the Pacific, including the north–south rivers Mataje, Santiago, Esmeraldas, Chone, Guayas, Jubones, and Puyango-Tumbes. [citation needed]. [118] Other Amerindian languages spoken in Ecuador include Awapit (spoken by the Awá), A'ingae (spoken by the Cofan), Shuar Chicham (spoken by the Shuar), Achuar-Shiwiar (spoken by the Achuar and the Shiwiar), Cha'palaachi (spoken by the Chachi), Tsa'fiki (spoken by the Tsáchila), Paicoca (spoken by the Siona and Secoya), and Wao Tededeo (spoken by the Waorani). These negotiations were long and tiresome. The Liberal Revolution of 1895 under Eloy Alfaro reduced the power of the clergy and the conservative land owners. In the northernmost part of the coast, we find a small area occupied by forests and mangroves, where the climate is equatorial, hot and humid all year round, with constant rains; in Valdez, near the border with Colombia, 2,400 millimeters (95 inches) of rain fall per year. When the Incas arrived, they found that these confederations were so developed that it took the Incas two generations of rulers—Topa Inca Yupanqui and Huayna Capac—to absorb them into the Inca Empire. There are only two seasons in the city: dry and wet. Ecuador lies between latitudes 2°N and 5°S, [145] The most notable icons in Ecuadorian sciences are the mathematician and cartographer Pedro Vicente Maldonado, born in Riobamba in 1707, and the printer, independence precursor, and medical pioneer Eugenio Espejo, born in 1747 in Quito. The coastal low­lands in the west­ern part of Ecuador are typ­i­cally warm with tem­per­a­tures in the re­gion of 25 °C (77 °F). [59], Ecuador has the first constitution to recognize the rights of nature. Churrasco is a staple food of the coastal region, especially Guayaquil. Ecuador map of Köppen climate classification. The story is based on a real pirate by the name of George d'Hout who terrorized Guayaquil in the 16th Century. There are thirteen permanent committees. [141], Provision of public schools falls far below the levels needed, and class sizes are often very large, and families of limited means often find it necessary to pay for education. The Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito and the José Joaquín de Olmedo International Airport in Guayaquil have experienced a high increase in demand and have required modernization. [113], In the early 1900's there was immigration from Italians, Germans, Portuguese, French, Britons and Greeks. In addition to over 16,000 species of plants, the country has 106 endemic reptiles, 138 endemic amphibians, and 6,000 species of butterfly. [80], Oil accounts for 40% of exports and contributes to maintaining a positive trade balance. Ecuadorian cuisine is diverse, varying with the altitude and associated agricultural conditions. EPN adopted the polytechnic university model that stresses laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. Peru began occupying the defenseless missionary villages in the Mainas or Maynas region, which it began calling Loreto, with its capital in Iquitos. Ecuador lies directly on the equator, so the entire country enjoys 12 hours of direct equatorial daylight 365 days a year. Ecuador's economy is the eighth largest in Latin America and experienced an average growth of 4.6% between 2000 and 2006. Similarly, a number of loyal Inca subjects from Peru and Bolivia were brought to Ecuador to prevent rebellion. The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. The inflation rate until January 2008, was about 1.14%, the highest in the past year, according to the government. Marriages are usually from 14 and above using parental consent. Part of Ecuador's population can speak Amerindian languages, in some cases as a second language. It was common knowledge among the top officers of the liberation army from the south that their leader San Martin wished to liberate present-day Ecuador and add it to the future republic of Peru, since it had been part of the Inca Empire before the Spaniards conquered it. Bolivar countered by sending a message from Guayaquil welcoming San Martin and his troops to Colombian soil. The Galapagos and the coast are influenced by ocean currents. The Treaty of Pasto of 1832 was signed by which the Department of Cauca was turned over to New Granada (modern Colombia), the government of Bogotá recognized Ecuador as an independent country and the border was to follow the Ley de División Territorial de la República de Colombia (Law of the Division of Territory of the Gran Colombia) passed on June 25, 1824. The military tradition starts in Gran Colombia, where a sizable army was stationed in Ecuador due to border disputes with Peru, which claimed territories under its political control when it was a Spanish vice-royalty. This caused a long-simmering dispute between Ecuador and Peru, which ultimately led to fighting between the two countries; first a border skirmish in January–February 1981 known as the Paquisha Incident, and ultimately full-scale warfare in January 1995 where the Ecuadorian military shot down Peruvian aircraft and helicopters and Peruvian infantry marched into southern Ecuador. [69][failed verification] From 2007 to 2012, Ecuador's GDP grew at an annual average of 4.3 percent, above the average for Latin America and the Caribbean, which was 3.5%, according to the United Nations' Economic Commission for Latin American and the Caribbean (ECLAC). Several of the larger islands, however, have freshwater springs although they are surrounded by the Pacific Ocean. Overbilling is recorded in 20% of public establishments and in 80% of private establishments. The Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security (IESS) has several major hospitals and medical sub-centers under its administration across the nation.[133]. Its capital Quito is located only 15 miles (25 km) from a latitude of 0 degrees. [29] The Guarantors of the Rio Protocol (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and the United States of America) ruled that the border of the undelineated zone was to be set at the line of the Cordillera del Cóndor. [87] Ecuador encompasses a wide range of natural formations and climates, from the desert -like southern coast to the snowcapped peaks of the Andes mountain range to the plains of the Amazon Basin. In 2009, the new administration at the Defense Ministry launched a deep restructuring within the forces, increasing spending budget to $1,691,776,803, an increase of 25%.[52]. In the absence of the section between Loja and the border with Peru, there are the Route Espondilus and/or Ruta del Sol (oriented to travel along the Ecuadorian coastline) and the Amazon backbone (which crosses from north to south along the Ecuadorian Amazon, linking most and more major cities of it). [3] Amerindians account for 7% of the current population. To date, Correa's administration has succeeded in reducing the high levels of poverty and unemployment in Ecuador. Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. The legislative branch is embodied by the National Assembly, which is headquartered in the city of Quito in the Legislative Palace, and consists of 137 assemblymen, divided into ten committees and elected for a four-year term. This infuriated Atahualpa so much that he threw the Bible to the ground. Famous authors from the late colonial and early republic period include Eugenio Espejo, a printer and main author of the first newspaper in Ecuadorian colonial times; Jose Joaquin de Olmedo (born in Guayaquil), famous for his ode to Simón Bolívar titled Victoria de Junin; Juan Montalvo, a prominent essayist and novelist; Juan Leon Mera, famous for his work "Cumanda" or "Tragedy among Savages" and the Ecuadorian National Anthem; Juan A. Martinez with A la Costa; Dolores Veintimilla;[123] and others. The politics of Ecuador are multi-party. Among the people that have a religion, 80.44% are Roman Catholic Latin Rite (see List of Roman Catholic dioceses in Ecuador), 11.30% are Evangelical Protestants, 1.29% are Jehovah's Witnesses and 6.97% other (mainly Jewish, Buddhists and Latter-day Saints). [41] Correa has stated he was only seeking a retraction for slanderous statements. [25], After nearly 300 years of Spanish rule, Quito was still a small city numbering 10,000 inhabitants. As today, a master's degree is a requirement to keep an academic position and at least a foreign PhD to attain or retain the status of rector (president of a university) or décano (dean). These glaciers are all located on volcanic craters that are affected by the greenhouse effect. In 2017, the Ecuadorian parliament adopted a Law on human mobility. So influential was the military in Ecuador in the early republican period that its first decade was under the control of General Juan José Flores, first president of Ecuador of Venezuelan origin. To install click the Add extension button. Quito is located in the northern highlands of Ecuador in the Guayllabamba river basin. Ecuadorian institutions compute extensive information using supercomputers such as Quinde I, the most powerful of that country performing 232 TeraFLOPS. Ecuador abolished slavery and freed its black slaves in 1851.[27]. However, it is more hot and humid along the coast and in the Amazonjungle lowlands than it is in the mountains. The best time of year to visit Mindo in Ecuador. Guayaquil features a tropical savanna climate ... Ecuador is known for its artists and writers and for its place in art history. Even though their languages were unrelated, these groups developed similar groups of cultures, each based in different environments. Being a small country and a consumer of foreign technology, Ecuador has favored research supported by entrepreneurship in information technology. Climate. [citation needed] The unusually high elevation of the home stadium in Quito often affects the performance of visiting teams. He supported his claims with Spanish Royal decrees or Real Cedulas, that delineated the borders of Spain's former overseas colonies. Since African slavery was not the workforce of the Spanish colonies in the Andes Mountains, given the subjugation of the Amerindian people through proselytization and encomiendas, the minority population of African descent is mostly found in the coastal northern province of Esmeraldas. The coup d'état was led by General Guillermo Rodríguez and executed by navy commander Jorge Queirolo G. The new president exiled José María Velasco to Argentina. The northern faction headed by Atahualpa claimed that Huayna Capac gave a verbal decree before his death about how the empire should be divided. This law set the border at the river Carchi and the eastern border that stretched to Brazil at the Caquetá river. Ecuador has a highly changeable climate, which means that it can be variable at any time. Quito's nickname, "Luz de América" ("Light of America"), is based on its leading role in trying to secure an independent, local government. Coordinates: 2°00′S 77°30′W / 2.000°S 77.500°W / -2.000; -77.500, Ecuador (/ˈɛkwədɔːr/ (listen) EK-wə-dor; Spanish pronunciation: [ekwaˈðoɾ] (listen); Quechua: Ikwayur; Shuar: Ecuador or Ekuatur),[13][14] officially the Republic of Ecuador (Spanish: República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Quechua: Ikwadur Ripuwlika; Shuar: Ekuatur Nunka),[15][16] is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west. Among the traditional conferred terminal degrees can be noted the doctorate for medicine and law schools or engineering, physics, chemistry, or mathematics for polytechnic or technology institutes. In recognition of its unique ecological heritage, the new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize legally enforceable Rights of nature, or ecosystem rights. His historical accounts are nationalistic, featuring a romantic perspective of precolonial history. Both sides logically presented their cases, but no one seemed to give up their claims. The White Ecuadorians (White Latin American) are a minority accounting for 6.1% of the population of Ecuador and can be found throughout all of Ecuador primarily around the urban areas. Noticias España – Los titulares de hoy", Ecuador GDP Grew 4.3 Percent Average Per Year From 2007 to 2012, "El Banco Central de Ecuador sitúa el crecimiento del 2008 en más del 6%", Producto Interno Bruto (PIB) - Tasa de Crecimiento Real (%), Banco Central del Ecuador – Resumen de pib, "Ecuador Inflation rate (consumer prices) – Economy", Ecuadorian Inflation Accelerated to Three-Year High in 2011, Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe, CEPAL, Bases de Datos y Publicaciones Estadísticas "Tasa de desempleo. About 12.4% of the population is married in the ages 15–19. The doctors assigned to rural communities, where the Amerindian population can be substantial, have small clinics under their responsibility for the treatment of patients in the same fashion as the day hospitals in the major cities. It is mild year-round in the mountain valleys; humid in the tropical Pacific coastal areas and the lowlands are covered with rain forests. Also, the Cauca region, which included such cities as Pasto, Popayán, and Buenaventura, had always been dependent on the Presidencia or Audiencia of Quito. Between 2008 and 2016, new public hospitals have been built, the number of civil servants has increased significantly and salaries have been increased. Ecuador is a member of the United Nations (and most of its specialized agencies) and a member of many regional groups, including the Rio Group, the Latin American Economic System, the Latin American Energy Organization, the Latin American Integration Association, the Andean Community of Nations, and the Bank of the South (Spanish: Banco del Sur or BancoSur). This plan enabled the new democratically elected president to assume the duties of the executive office. Many of them were born in Guayaquil, such as: Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco (1908, Guayaquil – d. 1993, Quito) Araceli Gilbert (b. Jaime Roldós Aguilera was elected president, garnering over one million votes, the most in Ecuadorian history. [135] The infant mortality rate is 13 per 1,000 live births,[136] a major improvement from approximately 76 in the early 1980s and 140 in 1950. In the early part of the 20th century, Ecuador made an effort to peacefully define its eastern Amazonian borders with its neighbours through negotiation. Ecuador also has people of middle eastern extraction that have also joined the ranks of the white minority. [132], The public healthcare system should not be confused with the Ecuadorian Social Security healthcare service, which is dedicated to individuals with formal employment and who are affiliated obligatorily through their employers. The coastal lowlands in the western part of Ecuador are typically warm with temperatures in the region of 25 °C (77 °F). The few black African survivors swam to the shore and penetrated the then-thick jungle under the leadership of Anton, the chief of the group, where they remained as free men maintaining their original culture, not influenced by the typical elements found in other provinces of the coast or in the Andean region. In the first half of 2012, twenty private TV or radio stations were closed down. The justice system is buttressed by the independent offices of public prosecutor and the public defender. The 19th century was marked by instability for Ecuador with a rapid succession of rulers. Ecuadorian cuisine is diverse, varying with altitude, and associated agricultural conditions.Beef, chicken, and seafood are popular in the coastal regions and are typically served with carbohydrate-rich foods, such as rice accompanied with lentils, pasta, or plantain, whereas in the mountainous regions pork, chicken, beef and cuy are popular and are often served with rice, corn, or potatoes. Ecuador has many climate zones, from tropical along coast to cooler and dryer inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands. The emergence of the Amerindian population as an active constituency has added to the democratic volatility of the country in recent years. The climate in the Andean highlands is temperate and relatively dry, and the Amazon basin on the eastern side of the mountains shares the climate of other rainforest zones. Ecuador's Amerindian communities are integrated into the mainstream culture to varying degrees,[117] but some may also practice their own native cultures, particularly the more remote Amerindian communities of the Amazon basin. On May 6, 1904, Ecuador signed the Tobar-Rio Branco Treaty recognizing Brazil's claims to the Amazon in recognition of Ecuador's claim to be an Amazonian country to counter Peru's earlier Treaty with Brazil back on October 23, 1851. [89] Incomes from tourism has been increasing during the last few years because of the Government showing the variety of climates and the biodiversity of Ecuador. Finally, on July 23, 1941, the Peruvians launched a major invasion, crossing the Zarumilla river in force and advancing into the Ecuadorian province of El Oro. Nevertheless, this number is declining because young people leave the country for the United States or Israel. There are 686 malaria cases per 100,000 people. Here, the weather is about what you probably expect from the Ecuador climate: truly tropical with temperatures usually between 80 and 90 degrees Fahrenheit. [86] Pines and cedars are planted in the region of La Sierra and walnuts, rosemary, and balsa wood in the Guayas River Basin. General Jose Ma. Rivers may slow and widen as they cross the hoyas yet become rapid again as they flow from the heights of the Andes to the lower elevations of the other regions. The Central District of the Gran Colombia, known as Cundinamarca or New Granada (modern Colombia) with its capital in Bogota, did not recognize the separation of the Southern District of the Gran Colombia, with its capital in Quito, from the Gran Colombian federation on May 13, 1830.
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